The National Loaf

The National Loaf was instituted by the government from 1942 onwards as part of the home front effort during World War II. At the outbreak of war in September 1939, Britain, with a population of around 50 million, was importing 70% of its entire grain requirement.

The bulk of that imported grain was wheat shipped from Canada across the North Atlantic. Though the ships travelled in protected convoys, they were vulnerable to attack and sinking by German submarines.

Government planners calculated that it would require thirty ships a year to import the quarter of a ton per year needed to permit every citizen a wholly inadequate daily bread ration of ½ oz (25 gm)!

And that was wheat for bread alone. (It didn’t include the wheat required for other food products) But shipping on such a grand scale cost money and resources that could be used elsewhere in the war effort therefore the less shipping space required for wheat would mean more space available for war materials.

But although numerous other food stuffs had been rationed since January 1940, the British government did not want to ration wheat or bread for if it could possibly be avoided. The daily bread then, as now, was not just a basic commodity it was the staff of life.

It fell therefore to the Ministry of Food to reduce the amount of imported wheat for bread in order to make the most of what did arrive, whilst continuing to keep bread freely available and ensuring that the population was receiving optimal nutrition value from their food.

In the spring of 1942 the solution they arrived at was to make the wheat they did import go further by the creation of a ‘National Flour’ to create a ‘National Loaf’

To cope with the reductions in the amount of wheat imported, more flour had to be extracted . It also had added calcium to prevent rickets. The loaf was dense with a dirty grey colour and was unpopular with a population used to white bread. It quickly gained the nickname ‘Hitlers secret weapon’. Unfortunately many people did not find its greyish colour appealing

Since white flour is generally around 70% extraction the higher 85% extraction rate would yield an extra 15 kg of flour from that wheat. And the population would have a nourishing wholemeal loaf with a high vitamin B content.

But although the initial extraction rate was 85% it varied over the years. After a short period during which the extraction rate for National Flour was raised to 90% it was in 1944 subsequently reduced to 85% and remained so until August 1950, when it became 81%.

This rate of extraction referred to flour as produced by the mills from the grist supplied. For issue it was usually mixed with a proportion (up to 20%) of imported white flour of lower extraction so that National Flour as delivered was comparable with 82-85% extraction flour.

White flour was still being produced and imported during this period, but it could only be obtained by food manufacturers for items such as biscuits, cakes or for mixing in small quantities into 85% extraction flour to make National Flour. Today, on average we eat less fibre than recommended. But a diet high in fibre has many health benefits. It may help prevent heart disease, diabetes, weight gain and some cancers, and can also improve digestive health.

Bakers were banned from making any other type of bread except the national loaf. The Federation of Bakers was formed, to assist in organising the wartime production and distribution of bread. Sliced bread was also banned as it was seen as a waste of energy.

A government wartime rhyme was:

“Pat-a-loaf, pat-a-loaf
Baker’s Man
Bake me some Wheatmeal
As fast as you can:
It builds up my health
And its taste is good,
I find that I like
Eating just what I should.

National Loaf recipe:

Ingredients:
(Yields: 10 loaves)
Potato Flour – 1740 gm
Salt Sea Fine – 140 gm
Tap Water – 4740 ml
Vitamin C – 6 gm
Wholemeal flour – 5220 gm
Yeast – 210 gm

Method:
Mix all ingredients in spiral mixer for 3-5 min
Place dough in lightly oiled container, let rest for 45 minutes
Knock back and let rest for another 45 min
Scale at 1kg, first shape (round)
Rest 10-15 min, then second shape
Place bread in oiled baking tins, prove for 45-60 min at 28-32c
Bake at 208 c top 204 c bottom, with 5 second steam. Open vent after 25 min, bake for a further 25 minutes
Remove from tins immediately and cool on a rack.

The National Loaf was finally abolished in October 1956.

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‘Hoosier’ Friend (In The Kitchen)?

The ‘Hoosier cabinet’ was a type of free-standing kitchen cabinet that also served as a workstation, larder and preparation unit that first became popular in the USA in the first decades of the 20th century. Since most houses of the time did not have built-in kitchen cabinets of dedicated work-spaces.

The Hoosier Manufacturing Co of New Castle, Indiana, was one of the earliest and largest manufacturers of this style of product and the term “Hoosier Cabinet” became the generic term for this type of kitchen furniture. By 1920, the Hoosier Manufacturing Company had sold more than two million cabinets.

Hoosier cabinets evolved over the years to include more accessories and innovations that made life easier for the cook in the kitchen. Their popularity peaked in the late twenties and early thirties as homes began to be constructed with built-in kitchen cabinets and counter tops.

Many years ago my father aquired an example of a Hoosier from the garden shed of an elderly lady by the name of Ruby Barrow. Ruby was an old friend of Granny Robertson and I knew her as a boy in the company of Granny. About five years ago I re-discovered it in the shed, a dilapidated old thing that was part tool cupboard, part oil store, part paint store and part library.

And it became a project, an object from another generation, Granny Robertsons generation. It was not an original of course, it was a good home-made example made by Mr George Barrow, Ruby’s husband somewhen after the war for their new marital home.

First of all, I got it cleaned it up and washed it white.

It had originally been pale pastel colours so I went for a pale mushroom and apple green combination. Since my sister was going to be housing the finished product and she wished for gold garniture, I painted the garniture gold.

Some of it, the hinges in particular, were very ‘rough and ready’ but despite that I re-used them because they looked the part. I could not find another hinge that would have look any better otr more authentic.

The vents were in good nick and after a bit of tarting up and a bit of WD40  worked nicely and looked pretty good.

The handles and catches had been quite badly twisted during its life as a general dogsbody of a unit but with a little bit of patience they straightened out quite well.

Unfortunately the fold-down table top had long since been removed so rather than attempt a replacement I prettied up the cabinet and left it as an open space.

I returned the egg trays and the paper catchers in the top doors until it looked something like smart. Something very much like this in fact.

It currently resides in my sister’s garage awaiting the re-vamp of her kitchen into a sort of retro forties look.

Once it is ‘in situ’ I shall post a photo of it in its new setting.

Watch this space!

 

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Gruel-baked-on-a-hot-rock-beside-a-roaring-fire

Pancakes are an ancient food that has been around since Neolithic humans domesticated einkorn wheat, (the earliest clear evidence of the domestication of einkorn wheat dates from around 8,650 BC) ground it into flour mixed with bird’s egg and goat’s milk and poured the batter onto a heated rock.

It happened long, long ago on a really nice sunny day, long before pots, pans and microwave ovens, when an ancient cook (he really wasn’t that ancient, probably somewhere in his mid-to-late twenties but there was no NHS back then) dropped a little gruel on a hot rock beside a roaring campfire that resulted in a cake that was tastier than the plain gruel cakes cooked directly in the embers of the fire. Unfortunately for him the name he gave them, gruel-baked-on-a-hot-rock-beside-a-roaring-fire never really caught on.

Imagine! All those billions in lost royalties!

But be that as it may, several millennia later following the iron age and the patenting of the first frying pan, the word pancake appeared in print as early as 1430. Because of this ancient lineage, pancakes have become associated with many rituals in many different countries – Shrove Tuesday, Candlemas, and Chanukah to name a few.

And it was from these rudimentary beginnings that a vast array of bread and pancakes burst forth to populate the crofts and cots of the world. The ancient Greeks used griddles to cook a flat loaf drizzled with honey called ‘kreion’ and cakes of soft cheese while the Romans, as revealed in the cookbook by the epicure Apicius made dishes similar to modern pancakes.

Medieval pancakes, most commonly made from barley or rye and lacking leavening, were pretty awesome affairs. They were quite different from contemporary fluffy or tender versions we know today. Pancakes prevailed as the household bread in homes with no ovens, only an open hearth.

Pancake Day is another name for Shrive Tuesday, from the custom of eating pancakes on this day, which is still generally observed. Shrive is an old Saxon word, of which shrove is a corruption and signifies confession.

The custom of dining on pancakes on Shrove Tuesday is Roman Catholic origin that on the day when all rejoiced alike in the forgiveness of their sins, all should equally feast alike on the same simple dish. Commonly known as “Pancake Day”, Shrove Tuesday was the day when, historically, perishable ingredients had to be used up before the fasting period of Lent. The pancakes were prepared, denoted by the ringing of the ‘pancake bell’ from the church tower.

And pancakes became an essential element of the classic American breakfast while in other parts of the world pancakes somehow evolved to become exclusively Sunday morning breakfast fare and, since they are so easy to make and there are so many different ways to prepare them, pancakes are a favourite hearty party food to cook for a crowd!

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Ten Things You Never Knew About . . . Rice

1) Rice cultivation is thought to have begun in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River which at 6,380 km is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world. It is also the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country.

2) Archaeological excavations throughout Asia indicate that the domestication of rice oryza sativa, occurred some seven thousand years ago in Asia. Many places claim the honour of being the first but evidence suggests that it occurred in many centres of population at roughly the same time.

3) First domesticated on flood-plains as a shallow or deep water crop, the cultivation of rice later extended to the rain-fed uplands and rapidly spread throughout Asia as a principal foodstuff.

4) Rice is a unique crop. Archaeological excavations throughout China indicate that the domestication of rice oryza sativa, occurred some seven thousand years ago.

5) In 1951 Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov put forward the theory that rice domestication occurred in India based on the excavation of rice grains at Hasthinapur, Uttar Pradesh at between one thousand and seven hundred and fifty years BC and the appearance of references to rice in ancient Hindu scripts as far back as fifteen hundred years BC.

6) Effectively  older than wheat, corn and barley the growth of rice production can be seen as running parallel to human civilization formany  thousands of years.

7) The OED’s first citation for the word rice can be found in the household accounts of King Henry III in 1234. Costing 1½d lb rice was considered as a spice and its use was carefully logged and it was kept locked up in the spice cupboard.

8) The Black Death,  which ravaged Europe from 1348 to 1352, and then recurred at irregular intervals as Bubonic Plague, has been credited with the introduction of rice to the northern Mediterranean.

9) In England, in 1585, rice steeped in cow’s milk with white breadcrumbs, powdered fennel seed and a little sugar was thought good for increasing the flow of milk in a nursing mother’s breasts.

10) As the availability of cheap rice from overseas possessions increased rice slid further down the British markets and began being taken by countries far remote from where it grew. Farm workers in 19th century Norway ate a porridge of water and barley on working days, milk and barley on Sundays, but milk and rice for feasts of celebration, while in Finland, rice porridge was served as dessert on Christmas Eve.

An early Japanese rice cooker advertisement.

Posted in The Evolution Of . . ., World Cuisine | Leave a comment

Granny Robertson Meets Granny Smith

The Granny Smith apple was discovered in Australia in the 1860’s. A chance seedling on a compost heap in the orchard of Maria Ann Smith led to the first apple to be introduced into the United Kingdom in the 30’s.

Their flesh is bright white and crisp in texture with a tart, acidic, yet subtly sweet flavour. They are often used in cooking because of their high acidity and ability to hold their shape when cooked.

They can be baked into sweet or savoury pies and tarts, added to savoury bread stuffing, risotto or potato pancakes.

Their sweet-tart flavour is a great addition to soups, smoothies and sauces.

The Granny Smith Cultivar originated in Eastwood, New South Wales, Australia (now a suburb of Sydney) in 1868. Its discoverer, Maria Ann Smith, had emigrated to the district from Beckley, East Sussex in 1839 with her husband Thomas.

They purchased a small orchard in the area in 1855-1856 and began cultivating fruit, for which the area was well known, in colonial Australia. Smith had eight children and was a prominent figure in the district, earning the nickname “Granny” in her later years.

The first description of the origin of the Granny Smith apple, published in 1924 in Farmer and Settler was the account of a local historian who had interviewed two men who had known Smith. One of those recalled that in 1868, he and his father had been invited to Smith’s farm to inspect a chance seedling that had sprung near a creek.

The story recounted that Smith had been testing French crab-apples for cooking, and, throwing the apple cores out her window as she worked, had found that the new seedling had sprung up underneath her kitchen windowsill.

Granny Smith took it upon herself to propagate the new apple. Finding the fruits to have ‘all the appearances of a cooking apple’ but were ‘sweet and crisp to eat’ she took a stall at Sydney’s George Street market, where the apples became ‘exceptionally popular’ and once a week sold her produce there.

Granny Smith died a few short years after her discovery but her work had been noticed by other local planters. Edward Gallard was one such planter, who extensively planted Granny Smith trees on his property and bought the Smith farm when Thomas died in 1876.

Gallard was successful in marketing the apple locally and in 1890 it was exhibited as ‘Smith’s Seedling’ at the Castle Hill Agricultural and Horticultural Show.

The following year it won the prize for cooking apples under the name “Granny Smith’s Seedling. In 1895, the New South Wales Department of Agriculture recognised the cultivar and had begun growing the trees at the Government Experimental Station in Bathurst, New South Wales.

Its worldwide fame as a late-picking cooking apple with a good potential for export grew from the fact that it could be picked from March and stored till November led to the government actively promoting it, leading to its widespread adoption. They became one of the first varieties of apple to be widely available in supermarkets and their excellent storing qualities made them suitable for export. With their bright green skin, often speckled with pale white spots they are medium to large in size and suitably round in shape.

Today Granny Smith apples grow in Australia, Europe, New Zealand, South America and the United States. They tend to ripen best in warmer climates where they get a significant amount of sunshine.

According to the United States Apple Association website it is one of the fifteen most popular apple cultivars in the United States.

So much so that in 1968 The Beatles used an image of a Granny Smith apple as the logo for their corporation, Apple Corps Limited and for their record label, Apple Records.

One side of vinyl albums featured the exterior of the fruit whilst the other side of the recording featured a cross-section of the apple.

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Further Grim Warnings

As a follow up to the previous post of ‘cautionary tales’ taken from Bunty, a story book from the seventies aimed at teenage girls, and with this post I conclude the round half dozen.

But once again the consequences are severe, the messages perfectly clear. And, as before the material is subversive and against all the protocols of political correctness!

Once again teenage girls of a certain age are targeted, but one of the storylines in particular is a bit close to the bone in light of more modern understanding!

The final three are the Untidiness story, the Toothy story and lastly the Slimming story.

The nifty drawing and delightfully composed verses continue with the rich seam of rather black humour of the previous tales, adding, if anything an even darker edge!

Enjoy!

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Beyond Sarajevo – The Home Front

Following the outbreak of war in 1914, Germany instituted a campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare with the intention of exposing France, Italy, Britain and all other  countries heavily reliant on food imports, to a long term food crisis.

These countries viewed the submarine campaign as a deadly threat. They attempted to increase their own food production and on 8 August 1914 the Defence of the Realm Act was passed ‘for the securing of public safety’. This gave the act a very wide interpretation and regulated virtually every aspect of the British home front and was expanded as the war went on.

There are a number of more surprising measures introduced by DORA, some of which still affect life in Britain today and include:

Whistling for London taxis which was banned in case it should be mistaken for an air raid warning.

A prohibition was implemented on loitering near bridges and tunnels or lighting bonfires.

British Summer Time was instituted in May 1916 in order to maximise working hours in the day, particularly for agriculture.

Claims that war production was being hampered by drunkenness led to pub opening times and alcohol strength being reduced.

The ‘No Treating Order’ also made it an offence to buy drinks for others. (A restriction I adhere to, to this very day!)

The possession and supply of cocaine or opium by other than authorised professionals such as doctors, dentists and anaethetists became a criminal offence.

The blackout was introduced in towns and cities throughout the country as part of the new Air Raid Regulations.

Both press and private censorship was introduced, severely limiting the reporting of war news whilst many publications were also banned and Military censors examined 300,000 pieces of private correspondence, mainly telegrams, in 1916 alone.

Fines were issued for making white flour instead of whole-wheat and for allowing rats to invade wheat stores. Further restrictions on food production eventually led to the introduction of rationing in 1918.

The war took men and horses away from farm work, imports of nitrate fertilizers were disrupted and a reduced agricultural output forced up prices and encouraged hoarding. Governments responded by putting price controls on all staple foodstuffs which resulted in food queues (below) formed of women and children becoming a common sight not only in Britain but in many cities across Europe.

Hunger stalked the civilian populations of all the combatant nations. Agriculture and food distribution suffered from strains imposed by the war and naval blockades reduced food imports. Some countries met this threat more successfully than others.

Britain introduced rationing in early 1918 throughout the nation and the British public defied German expectations by accepting such a massive intrusion into their daily lives. Ration cards were issued and everyone had to register with a local butcher and grocer.

The first item to be rationed was sugar in January 1918, but by the end of April meat, butter, cheese and margarine were added to the list.

The need to queue was lessened when rationing was introduced but it also ensured an equality of food distribution.

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